A Mis-Diagnosis Plus Ice Cream Equals One Mega Sized Gut!

If Only He Knew His Lactose Gene Result!

Mighty mouse lives... well genetically created that is!

Well actually, Mighty Mouse was genetically created by Professor Richard Hanson in Cleveland a few years ago! Professor Hanson studied the role of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) in skeletal muscle. PEPCK-Cmus mice were created by introducing the cDNA for the enzyme, linked to the human alpha-skeletal actin gene promoter, into their germ line

STOP! You’ve Been Mis-Informed About Insulin Yet Again!

Busting one set of insulin myths clearly wasn’t enough for our fitness expert Mark Gilbert, so he’s returned to lift the lid on a second set of rumours surrounding the peptide hormone.

Genes and Drug Testing

What if we told you that a significant number of people have a certain gene type (a version of an ‘insertion/deletion’ genotype) that would allow them to beat a drug test? Well, it’s true!...

Using genetics to find future Olympians… Was this inevitable?

We have long known that people would start to become curious about the potential to use genetics testing to identify genetically gifted youngsters who could be nurtured as potential Olympians...

Natural Athletic Ability of African Americans

Here at FitnessGenes™, it’s the detail of theories that interests us, and we believe this is a phenomenal example of philosophy, hypothesis, and science. But first, a little history.

Collections of genes and how they allow an organism to adapt to different diets

This is a really interesting piece of research published this month in Cell Metabolism. Sean Curran and Shanshan Pang identify a collection of genes that allow an organism to adapt to different diets and show that, without them, even minor tweaks to diet can cause premature ageing and death.

“This structure has novel features which are of considerable biological interest”

In April 1953, this sentence appeared in the scientific paper where James Watson and Francis Crick presented the structure of the DNA helix, the molecule that carries genetic information from one generation to the other: that is the discovery of DNA!


FitnessGenes CSO Dr Samantha Decombel discusses the topic of Epigenetics, and explains why it is vital to consider their impact when constructing your genetic profile.

6 Genes That Influence Your Training and Nutrition

There are the physiques we’re born with, there are the physiques we create, and understanding your genetics can help you get the physique you want. Here’s an overview of 6 of the 41 genes we analyse and examples of how greater understanding of your genetics can influence your lifestyle and training for better results.


Vitamin D has been a hot topic of conversation this week as leading health organisations recommended that many of us need to increase our intake to maintain healthy levels. But is your genotype putting you at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency? Read this week's blog post to learn the vitamin's function, how it can affect physical performance, and how you can be sure you're getting enough.

Breaking genetics news on sprint and power performance

Here at FitnessGenes, we always want to keep you and our scientific analysis up-to-date! Following the release of recent research, we have updated our ACVR1B gene report. Could this mean good news for you and your power performance?

Why do Jamaicans dominate sprinting and East Africans dominate distance running?

In most sports, there are typically one or two nations that are synonymous with success: New Zealand with Rugby; Germany or Brazil in football; the USA in basketball, baseball, and American football. Team sports are difficult to analyze from a genetics perspective. Running however, is a pure and natural sport. So given the incredibly low barrier to entry in running, global competition should really be fierce…..except it’s not.

Are You Genetically More Like Your Mother or Your Father?

You may have your mother’s eyes or your father’s math skills, but how do your parents really influence your genetic makeup? Our Science Team explains.

Subcutaneous vs Visceral fat. Which do you carry?

Get to know your key exercise organ: The anatomy of the heart

Will you experience menopause the same as your mother?

Menopause is not exactly a life event that women look forward to. We look at the genetic factors that can influence the physical and psychological symptoms of this transitional stage in women’s lives.

The Obesity Paradox

The easy availability of cheap, calorie-dense, but nutrient poor foods is simultaneously over feeding and under nourishing the developed, and developing worlds.

Food cravings

What’s behind your insatiable desire for chocolate? And what, if anything, can you do about it? Managing your food cravings.

Is gene doping the future of cheating?

What exactly is gene doping, what are the dangers, and should you suspect your fellow competitors or admired elite athletes have been genetically enhanced anytime soon?

Enteric Nervous System

What is the Enteric Nervous System, and how does it interact with your gut bacteria and brain?

How your sleep cycle impacts your weight and your workouts

Are you a morning lark or a night owl? We’ll help you understand your body clock and how it affects weight loss and your performance in the gym.

What's the difference between fast and slow twitch muscle fibers?

There are 3 different types of skeletal muscle fiber in the human body. We explain the differences and how genetics and training influence muscle composition

Unraveling the secrets of our circadian rhythm

Your CLOCK gene can tell you whether you’re more likely to be a night owl or morning lark, or advise you on when best to work out, eat, or drink coffee.

How finger length influences overall strength

Testosterone in the womb determines the ratio of your index and ring fingers, which directly influences your predisposition for lean muscle and strength gains

Is struggling with weight your destiny?

Are you overweight because of your genes, your lifestyle or both? FitnessGenes investigates the latest science in the battle against obesity.

How much coffee should I drink?

British researchers scoured 218 meta-analyses, looking at the relationship between coffee consumption (not caffeine) and various disease outcomes. We analyze the results and make our recommendations.

What do elite athletes think about DNA analysis?

According to a recent university study, the majority of elite sports people and their support professionals want to know whether DNA affects performance, changes the risk of injury, and can provide other advantageous insights into gaining a winning margin.

More exercise burns fewer calories? You can't be serious?

One of the benefits of getting fitter is that workouts start to feel easier. Does this mean you now burn fewer calories when exercising? We explain the science.

Does exercise make you happier?

Does exercise make you happier or do happier people exercise more? FitnessGenes science team investigates the latest research and explains the optimal amount of exercise for maximum mental health benefit.

The Human Genome Project at 15: what have we learned?

There are 3 BILLION base pairs in the human DNA sequence, yet we're all 99.5-99.9% the same. While only 0.1% - 0.4% of our genome varies between individuals, we are all significantly different. We look different to each other, we behave differently, and we respond differently to diet and exercise.

5 ways to make healthy changes in your life

NOT your typical clickbait social media post, this is a scientific view of how you can make positive changes in your life that will benefit your health and fitness

The benefits of a weekend lie-in

Lack of sleep has proven health risks. Oversleeping also carries risks. What is the correct amount of sleep and can you "catch up" on lost sleep? We investigate the latest research

Working out with PCOS

PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) is common in the general population, affecting 5-10% of women and it is particularly prevalent in female athletes. We investigate the genetic and lifestyle issues for women with this condition.

Genetics of elite footballers

Elite football players are gifted sportspeople. Find out which genes might predetermine some players for greatness. We explain the research into the genetics of elite footballers

Homocysteine and your folate genes explained

Homocysteine has become a buzzword of late in the medical world. New evidence is published monthly highlighting this amino acid as a substantial risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease and dementia. We take a closer look at this important molecule, highlighting reasons to be aware of it, and what can be done to minimize its potentially harmful effects. Read more

Is too much exercise bad for your mental health?

We all know that exercise brings many mental health benefits, including improved mood, relief from stress, and a reduced risk of mental illness. But is there an ideal amount of exercise for our mind? Our science team looks at the findings of an interesting new study.

Is obesity all in the brain?

Is obesity caused by poor diet and lack of exercise, or by the way you're wired? With 75% of obesity-related genes chiefly expressed in the brain, the latest research is truly fascinating.

Pillow talk-The importance of sleep for recovery and performance

Sleep should be the foundation of your healthy lifestyle. We explain the science and offer tips to help you get a better night's sleep

Can exercise alter your gut bacteria?

Around 100 trillion bacteria, viruses and fungi are all living happily in your gut, helping to digest food, produce vitamins and maintain immune function. We know that changes in our diet can alter the composition of these microorganisms in our gut, which in turn can have major effects on our health and fitness. But what about exercise? Can that alter our gut bacteria? Our science team takes a closer look.

Are you salt sensitive?

Nearly of quarter of people are sensitive to salt, meaning their blood pressure rises excessively in response to sodium in their diet. We explain the fascinating science behind this phenomenon.

Choline Explained

If you’re a FitnessGenes customer, you’ll know that one of your Personal Insights concerns your requirement for choline. So, just what is choline, why does your body need it, and where can you get it from? This article explains everything you need to know.

Is 'yo-yo' weight cycling bad for me?

A new study shows that weight cycling, which refers to extreme fluctuations in bodyweight, increases the risk of death. Our science team takes a deeper look at the research.

Are you sure you have a food allergy?

According to a new study, too many of us are responding ‘yes’ when posed this question. That is, several people incorrectly think they have an allergy. The study, published in the journal JAMA Open Network, found that around 1 in 5 people in the US believe they have a food allergy. In reality, far fewer (closer to 1 in 10) people actually suffer from a true allergy. Many of these people instead experience symptoms better described by the term ‘food intolerance.’ So, just what is an allergy? And how is it different from a food intolerance?

Should I take the stairs?

According to a new study, taking the stairs in short bouts leads to better aerobic fitness and muscle strength.

Are American Football Players Obese?

The Superbowl is this weekend and NFL fans are likely to be treated to a veritable feast of sporting prowess. But, did you know that the overwhelming majority of elite American Football players are in fact overweight or obese?

5 effects of exercise on your heart

We all know that “exercise is good for the heart” – but, what exactly does this mean? In celebration of National Heart Month (and, perhaps somewhat spuriously, Valentine’s day), we explore some of the changes your heart undergoes in response to regular, vigorous exercise.

How many push ups can you do?

It’s one of the simplest yet most effective bodyweight exercises around: the humble push-up (or press up). A staple of high-school gym class, military training and HIIT workouts, the push-up engages several muscle groups, including the pectorals, deltoids, triceps and core muscles. According to new research, push-ups may also be particularly good for your heart.

Nitric Oxide and Blood Flow

All you need to know about nitric oxide and blood flow, including how to increase blood flow to exercising muscles.

Your Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System and why it's important

All you need to know about your Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, a complex system of hormones that controls your blood pressure, blood volume and blood flow.

BH4 Synthesis and Recycling

All you need to know about your two BH4 traits that affect blood flow and the formation of neurotransmitters.

Testosterone Levels

All you need to know about your testosterone traits.

Night-time glucose regulation (melatonin)

All you need to know about your insulin, melatonin and sleep trait.

Serum Calcium Level

All you need to know about your serum calcium level trait.

Sex hormones and visceral fat

All you need to know about your Sex hormones, Visceral fat and Insulin Trait.

Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction

All you need to know about your vascular smooth muscle contraction trait.

Optimizing cortisol for exercise and recovery

All you need to know about your Cortisol Trait.

Leptin resistance

All you need to know about your Leptin Resistance trait.

Adrenaline: Acute Response

All you need to know about your Adrenaline: Acute Response trait.

Dopamine Metabolism

All you need to know about your Dopamine Metabolism trait.

Dopamine metabolism II - MAO

An introduction to your Dopamine Metabolism II - MAO activity.

Serotonin Synthesis

Serotonin (also known as 5-HT) is often dubbed our “happiness hormone.” It is a neurotransmitter (i.e. a nerve communication molecule) involved in the regulation of our mood and emotions, including feelings of anxiety, surprise and happiness. Brain circuits that use serotonin also control our sleep pattern, food intake, processing of pain, and so-called ‘cognitive’ functions, such as attention, memory, decision-making and problem solving. Serotonin’s actions are not just restricted to the brain, it plays an important role in our enteric nervous system – the network of nerves that controls the function of our gut. In addition to acting as neurotransmitter, serotonin also acts as a hormone – a chemical signal that is transported in the bloodstream. Cells lining our digestive system produce serotonin, which then enters the bloodstream, where it has an effect on blood clotting, wound healing and blood flow. To find out more this and other personalized traits, login to truefeed or sign up for a FREE truefeed account.

Mitochondrial Biogenesis (PGC-1α)

“Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell” You may remember that neat phrase from high school biology class. Our mitochondria (single = mitochondrion) are specialized structures or “organelles” within our cells that are responsible for producing energy. More specifically, mitochondria carry out cell respiration - the process by which we convert chemical energy from food into a common energy currency that can be used to power all sorts of cellular functions. Such cellular functions include the transport of molecules, growth of new cells and the contraction of muscle fibers, all of which require an energy currency molecule called adenosine tri-phosphate or ATP. This trait looks at how well your muscles grow and generate new mitochondria. This process, called mitochondrial biogenesis, plays a major role in exercise (particularly endurance / aerobic exercise) performance.

Protein Synthesis and Hypertrophy (mTOR)

mTOR stands for Mammalian Target of Rapamycin. It is a key molecule that regulates the growth of cells in response to various stimuli, including: the availability of nutrients, changes in energy balance, hormones, changes in blood flow and oxygen delivery, and mechanical load on muscles (e.g. as part of resistance training). mTOR controls the growth and production (or ‘synthesis’) of protein in various types of cells, including muscle cells (muscle fibers). Enlargement of muscle fibers (hypertophy) relies upon mTOR signalling. It therefore plays an important role in muscle gains following exercise. mTOR also regulates a process called autophagy - the breakdown and recycling of old, faulty and damaged cell components. This process helps to rejuvenate cells and influences how quickly our cells age. mTOR is therefore crucially involved in the ageing process.

Metabolic Efficiency and UCP1

Metabolic Efficiency and Fuel Usage (UCP2)

Fat metabolism (beta oxidation)

IGF-1 and muscle growth

ACTN3 and Muscle Performance

COVID-19 explained

There is an overwhelming amount of information about COVID-19 at the moment, and much of it can appear complicated, or, unfortunately, even be misleading. The aim of this explainer article is to distil lots of the existing scientific research and studies into one place.

What are traits?

At FitnessGenes we analyze more than just your DNA. We combine your individual genetic variants with lifestyle and environmental data to provide measurable aspects of your internal biology: your traits.

The Function of DNA

From before we are born and throughout our lifetime, our deoxyribonucleic acid (or DNA) influences our entire biology. But what exactly is it, and what is it's function within the body?

IGF1 muscle growth

If your goal is to build muscle size and strength, then maximizing your IGF-1 levels will be key. But is there a physiological tradeoff to having high circulating levels of this anabolic hormone?

COVID-19: How do I boost my immune system?

An evidence-based review of lifestyle measures that help to maintain a healthy immune system.

HIIT vs Steady State – which one should I do during lockdown?

Examining evidence base of HIIT vs Steady State.

Trait overview: Blood calcium level

Trait overview: Blood calcium level

Is drinking during lockdown harming my exercise performance?

Is drinking during lockdown harming my exercise performance?

COVID-19 and Vitamin D - is there a link?

COVID-19 and Vitamin D - is there a link?

5 tips for returning to the gym after a long break

5 tips for returning to the gym after a long break

Your ApoE and Inflammation Trait

Blog article of ApoE and Inflammation trait.

Your Fat Intake Master Trait

Your Fat Intake Master Trait

Your Saturated Fat Response (APOA2) Trait

Your Saturated Fat Response (APOA2) Trait

Your Blood Fat Level (APOA5) Trait

Your Fat Metabolism (β-oxidation) Trait

Your Fat Metabolism (β-oxidation) Trait

Your Obesity Risk (FTO) Trait

Your Obesity Risk (FTO) Trait

Your Metabolic Efficiency (UCP1) Trait

Your Metabolic Efficiency (UCP1) Trait

Your High Blood Pressure Risk (FURIN) Trait

Your Vitamin B6 Level Trait

Your Vitamin B6 Level Trait

Your Vitamin C level (SLC23A1) Trait

Your Oxidative Stress Risk (NQO1) Trait

Your Gut Inflammation Risk (NOD2) Trait

Trait#75: Gut Inflammation Risk

Your Vitamin A Requirement Trait

Your BCAAs and Insulin (PPM1K) Trait

Your Detoxification Rate (NAT2) Trait

Your Detoxification Rate (NAT1) Trait

Your Cholesterol and Ageing (CETP) Trait

Your Muscle Damage (TNF-α) Trait

Your Insulin Secretion (TCF7L2) Trait

Your Cardiovascular Health (GLUL) Trait

Your Oxidative Stress Risk (GPx-1) Trait

Your Vitamin B12 Absorption Trait

Your BDNF Activity and Cognition Trait

Your Seasonal Affective Disorder Trait

Your Sleep/Wake Cycle Trait

Your Sleep and Weight Gain Risk Trait

Your Oxidative Stress Risk (SOD2) Trait

Your APOE and Health Trait

Your Inflammation and IL-6 Trait

Your Betaine Requirement Trait

Your Choline Metabolism Trait

Your Muscle Performance (ACTN3) Trait

Your Muscle Growth (IGF-1) Trait

Your Fuel Usage (UCP2) Trait

Your Muscle Hypertrophy (mTOR) Trait

Your Mitochondria and Energy Trait

Your Serotonin Synthesis Trait

Your Dopamine Metabolism (MAO) Trait

Your Dopamine Metabolism (COMT) Trait

Your Adrenaline: Acute Response Trait

Your Adrenaline: Baseline Level Trait

Your Estrogen Production Trait

Your Fasting Blood Glucose Trait

Your Blood Flow and Calcium Trait

Your Vitamin D Level Trait

Your Vitamin E Breakdown Trait

Your Vitamin E Breakdown Trait

Your Vitamin K Breakdown Trait

Trait#84: Vitamin K Breakdown

Trait#85: Overeating risk (APOA2)

Trait#86: BCAA breakdown

COVID-19 - what are the different types of tests available?

What are the different types of COVID-19 tests?

Trait#87: Basal Metabolic Rate (UCP2)

Trait#87: Basal Metabolic Rate (UCP2)

Trait#88: Compulsive overeating (FAAH)

Trait#89: Telomere-linked ageing (TERC)

Trait#90: C-reactive protein levels (LEPR)

Trait#90: C-reactive protein levels (LEPR)

Trait#91: Vitamin D conversion (CYP2R1)

Trait#91: Vitamin D conversion (CYP2R1)

Trait#92: Protection against reactive oxygen species (UCP2)

Trait#93: Pain sensitivity (FAAH)

Trait#94: Dopamine and impulsive eating (DRD2)

Trait#96: MTHFR and blood pressure

Trait#97: BCAA metabolism and muscle building

Trait#99: Fat taste sensitivity (CD36)

Trait#100: FOXO3 and longevity

Trait#101: TNNI3K and fat intake

Trait#102: Alcohol metabolism (ALDH2) and health

Trait#103: SIRT1 and neuroprotection

Trait#104: Zinc and insulin secretion (SLC30A8)

Trait#105: PCSK1 and overeating

Trait#106: Infection susceptibility (MAL)

Trait#107: Oxytocin and overeating (OXTR)

Trait#108: Insulin processing (PCSK1)

Trait#109: MC4R and obesity

Trait#109: MC4R and obesity

Trait#110: LPA and heart health

Trait#111: GNB3 and cardiometabolic health

Trait#112: ATM and DNA damage

Trait#113: Bitter taste sensitivity

Trait#114: DNA repair and longevity (TP53)

Trait#115: ATR1 and blood pressure

Trait#116: PTPN2 and gut health

Trait#116: PTPN2 and gut health

Trait#117: Reducing Norovirus Infections (FUT2)

Trait #118: Lowering risk of blood clots

Trait #118: Lowering risk of blood clots

Trait#119: Seasonal variation in appetite (NPAS2)

Trait#120: Protecting your heart (PRSC1)

Trait#121: Improving insulin secretion (KCNJ11)

Trait#123: Healthy blood pressure and exercise (NOS3)

Reducing Saturated Fat Bands

Over-consuming on saturated fat can have serious implications for your heart health and waistline. But do you carry genetic variants that can amplify these effects? Learn more about the FitnessGenes Saturated Fat Response trait bands.

Fuel Usage actions

UCP2 is an important fat-burning protein as it acts as a metabolic switch between our primary source of energy, carbohydrates, and our energy-rich stores of fat. Here’s how to increase your UCP2 activity to access fat for fuel faster.

Fuel Usage bands

Fat is an excellent source of fuel as long as it can be effectively accessed. In this blog, we provide further detail on our recently updated Fuel Usage (UCP2) trait to help you better understand your personal result.

Trait#124: Caffeine and muscle building

Trait#125: BDNF, memory and overeating

caffeine trait bands

How does your personal Caffeine Responsivity and Building Muscle trait compare to other FitnessGenes members? In this blog we detail the various possible trait bands to help you better understand your personal caffeine response.

BDNF trait bands

Our ability to recall the meals that we eat throughout the day can be impaired by genetic and lifestyle factors, which in turn can influence how much we eat. This blog details these factors and the individual trait bands that make up the BDNF, memory and overeating trait.

Trait#126: AHSG and body fat

Trait#127: Lactate clearance and building muscle (MCT1)

AHSG trait bands

Fetuin-A is a protein which encourages the build-up of fat through several related mechanisms, including impairing insulin sensitivity and promoting chronic inflammation. So, which genotypes are most at risk of elevated levels of this fetuin-A?

Trait#128: Caffeine and endurance performance

A guide to how CYP1A2 variants affect endurance response to caffeine.

Caffeine endurance traits

While caffeine is widely used as a pre-workout stimulant, for some people taking it before endurance training or events can negatively impact their exercise performance. In this blog, we detail the various bands that make up our caffeine and endurance performance trait.

BTBD9 and sleep movement

Discover the science behind your BTBD9 and sleep movement trait.

Post-exercise recovery rate

The science behind your Post-exercise recovery rate trait.

Lactose tolerance

An overview of the science behind the Lactose Tolerance trait.

Musculoskeletal soft tissue injury risk (COL5A1)

The science behind your musculoskeletal soft tissue injury risk (COL5A1) trait.

Bone mineral density (VDR)

The science behind your Bone mineral density (VDR) trait.

Caffeine metabolism and heart health

The science behind your Caffeine metabolism and heart health trait

Plague susceptibility and autoimmunity (ERAP2)

The science behind your Plague susceptibility and autoimmunity (ERAP2) trait.

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